The chilli pepper (also chile pepper or chilli pepper, from Nahuatl chilli) is the fruit of plants from the genus Capsicum, members of the nightshade family, Solanaceae.
The term in British English and in Australia, New Zealand, India, Malaysia and other Asian countries is just chilli without "pepper".
Common name(s): chilli pepper, bell pepper, paprika, cayenne, halapenos, chitlepin, Christmas pepper
Flower colours: -
Bloom time: Year round
Max reacahble height: 1.5 to 3 feet
Difficulty to grow:: Easy
Planting and care
Plan to set out home grown or purchased transplants after the last spring frost date. Start plants indoors in flats or pots 8 to 10 weeks before the average last frost date. Set hot pepper plants 12 to 15 inches apart, larger bell types 15 to 18 inches apart. Provide windbreaks to minimize transplant shock.
Sunlight: Grows best in a site that receives full sun.
Soil: Your hot peppers need to have a seed-starting soil mixture that supports their nutrition and hydration needs so that pepper seeds turn into seedlings.
Water: Using a container with multiple drainage holes and well-drained soil combats any form of being waterlogged. This open ecosystem allows excess water to escape from the container while nourishing the pepper plant. Over-watering, the lack of drainage holes and compacted soil contribute to root rot, which causes slow die-back of the entire plant.
Temperature: 60 to 85 degrees C
Fertilizer: Peppers are light feeders. If you work 5-10-10 fertilizer into the soil prior to transplanting, that s probably sufficient. You can also side-dress the plants with a light sprinkling of 5-10-10 when blossoming starts, just to give them a boost if needed.
Caring for Hot Pepper F1 Hybrid OS
Provide deep watering weekly for pepper plants.
Support bushy, heavy-yielding plants with 2-foot-high cages, or stake them.
Apply heavy organic mulches when summer heat begins to peak.
Temperatures over 90 degrees F can cause buds and blossoms to drop; the condition is more serious if humidity is low also.
Most peppers, except for a few varieties like Sweet Banana, are green when young.
Though bell peppers come in many colours, such as red, yellow, and purple, you can eat any of them in the green stage.
However, they are sweeter if you let them ripen until the colour is fully developed.
Harvest by cutting through the stem of each fruit with a knife or with pruners.
You can have an almost-continuous harvest from your pepper plants by cutting often, as this encourages the plant to keep blossoming, especially in the beginning of the summer.
Typical uses of Hot Pepper F1 Hybrid OS
Chilli pepper pods, which are berries, are used fresh or dried.
Chillies are dried to preserve them for long periods of time, which may also be done by pickling.
Dried chillies are often ground into powders, although many Mexican dishes including variations on chillies rellenos use the entire chilli.
Dried whole chillies may be reconstituted before grinding to a paste. The chipotle is the smoked, dried, ripe jalapeÃ±o.
Many fresh chillies such as poblano have a tough outer skin that does not break down on cooking.
Chillies are sometimes used whole or in large slices, by roasting, or other means of blistering or charring the skin, so as not to entirely cook the flesh beneath.
When cooled, the skins will usually slip off easily.
Ornamental varieties of Capsicum annuum (the fruits of which are also edible) are grown primarily for the decorative value of their fruit, often displaying fruits of four or five colours simultaneously on one plant.
The popular â€˜Christmas peppersâ€™ were originally available at Christmas time and had green and red fruits.
Chilli pepper contains an impressive list of plant derived chemical compounds that are known to have disease preventing and health promoting properties.
Chillies contain health benefiting an alkaloid compound in them, capsaicin, which gives strong spicy pungent character.
Early laboratory studies on experimental mammals suggest that capsaicin has anti-bacterial, anti-carcinogenic, analgesic and anti-diabetic properties.
It also found to reduce LDL cholesterol levels in obese individuals.
Fresh chilli peppers, red and green, are rich source of vitamin-C. 100 g fresh chillies provide about 143.7 Âµg or about 240% of RDA.
Vitamin C is a potent water-soluble antioxidant. It is required for the collagen synthesis in the body.
Collagen is the main structural protein in the body required for maintaining the integrity of blood vessels, skin, organs, and bones.
Regular consumption of foods rich in vitamin C helps the body protect from scurvy; develop resistance against infectious agents (boosts immunity) and scavenge harmful, pro-inflammatory free radicals from the body.
They are also good in other antioxidants like vitamin A, and flavonoids like ÃŸ-carotene, a-carotene, lutein, zea-xanthin, and cryptoxanthin.
These antioxidant substances in capsicum help to protect the body from injurious effects of free radicals generated during stress, diseases conditions.
Chillies contain a good amount of minerals like potassium, manganese, iron, and magnesium.
Potassium is an important component of cell and body fluids that helps controlling heart rate and blood pressure.
Manganese is used by the body as a co-factor for the antioxidant enzyme, superoxide dismutase.
Chillies are also good in B-complex group of vitamins such as niacin, pyridoxine (vitamin B-6), riboflavin and thiamin (vitamin B-1).
These vitamins are essential in the sense that body requires them from external sources to replenish.