Artocarpus Heterophyllus, Jackfruit - 0.5 Kg Seeds
The jackfruit, the largest of all cultivated fruits, is oblong to cylindrical and typically 30 to 40 cm in length, although it can sometimes reach 90 cm. Jackfruits usually weigh 4.5 to 30 kg (commonly 9 to 18 kg), with a maximum reported weight of 50 kg. The heavy fruits are borne primarily on the trunk and on the interior parts of main branches.
Jackfruit is a multiple aggregate fruit (i.e., it is formed by the fusion of multiple flowers in an inflorescence). It has a green to yellow-green exterior rind. The hard outer covering is derived from the enlarged female flowers. The whitish fibrous pulp within contains many seeds (as many as 500 per fruit). The acid to sweetish (when ripe) banana-flavoured flesh (aril) surrounds each seed.
The heavy fruit is held together by a central fibrous core. In the Northern Hemisphere, the fruiting season is mainly late spring to early fall (March to September), especially the summer. A few fruits mature in winter or early spring. The succulent, aromatic, and flavourful fruit is eaten fresh, cooked as a starchy vegetable, or preserved (e.g., salted like a pickle).
Common name: Jackfruit, Jakfruit, Jaca, Nangka.
Height: Jack fruit trees typically reach a height of 8 to 25 m and a canopy diameter of 3.5 to 6.7 m at 5 years of age.
Difficulty level: Easy
Planting & Care
As the jackfruit has been traditionally propagated from seeds, there is a wide variation in productivity and in fruit size, shape and quality, as well as in the fruiting season. Two main types are recognised (1) "Nangka Belulang" with firm flesh and (2) "Nangka Bubur" with soft flesh.
A few cultivars are known or exploited in Malaysia. A greater research effort is needed to catalogue existing cultivars and to build up stocks of desirable clonal material.
The jackfruit variety under observation is the cultivar Negeri Sembilan Satu. NS 1 is the cultivar selected for processing and it is hoped that with further husbandry improvements, the acreage of jackfruit in Malaysia will expand to meet the development of the fruit processing industry.
Sunlight: Full sun to part shade
Soil: The jack fruit can be grown on a variety of soils as long as they are well-drained, but does best in deep alluvial soils of open texture.
Water: The tree will not tolerate drought. Water frequently during warm months and warm periods in cooler months. Less water is necessary during colder weather.
Temprature: Not below 32 F for young plants.
Fertilizer: The jack fruit s requirements are not known, but frequent, weak solutions of all-purpose fertilizer will speed the plant s growth without causing burn. In the regions where it is commonly grown, it succeeds without much care from man, the sole necessity being abundant moisture.
- The place chosen for the planting should be first cleared from old tree stumps and old roots to avoid termites and root disease.
- When necessary, the soil should be ploughed first, then rows are made to mark the planting intervals.
- Usually, jack fruits are planted at a distance of 30 ft.
- x 30 ft.
- In an acre, 48 trees can be planted.
- In a new area the planting interval can be reduced to 25 ft.
- x 25 ft.
- , and 69 trees can be planted in an acre.
- Planting holes of 2 ft x 2 ft x 2 ft.
- , should be prepared, and top soil with 4 oz.
- CIRP should be added into each hole.
- For not every fertile soils, it is advisable to add 40 lbs.
- of cowdung to the top soil.
- Usually the planting holes are left open for fourteen (14) days before they are filled up again, and only then is the budgrafted jackfruit tree planted.
- It is important to remember that during planting, the bud patch is not to be covered with soil.
- It would otherwise cause the bud patch to rot and die.
- The amount of sunlight can be reduced by using shade from coconut fronds.
- Usually, bud-grafted trees are planted during the rainy season so that they do not have to be watered.
- Since watering is quite a problem in large scale cultivation, planting should be done when there is rain in order to make sure that tne plants can grow well.
- This is important to prevent the plants from being stunted.
- Shading from the coconut fronds can be removed after two weeks if the weather is fine.
- Otherwise, it should be left for another week or more.
- For sandy soil and clay soil or the Holyrood series, legumes are required as cover crops.
- Calopogonium, Centrosema and Pueraria in a ratio of 5:4:1 are usually used.
- Cover crops are required to prevent weeds from growing, to alter the condition and fertility of the soil and also to prevent the soil from becoming too hot especially in bris areas.
Harvesting: Jackfruits mature 3 to 8 months from flowering. When mature, there is usually a change of fruit color from light green to yellow-brown. Spines, closely spaced, yield to moderate pressure, and there is a dull, hollow sound when the fruit is tapped. After ripening, they turn brown and deteriorate rather quickly. Cold storage trials indicate that ripe fruits can be kept for 3 to 6 weeks at 52° to 55° F and relative humidity of 85% to 95%. Immature fruit is boiled, fried, or roasted. Chunks are cooked in lightly salted water until tender and then served. The only handicap is copious gummy latex which accumulates on utensils and hands unless they are first rubbed with cooking oil. The seeds can also be boiled or roasted and eaten similar to chestnuts. In Southeast Asia dried slices of unripe jackfruit are sold in the markets. The ripe bulbs, fermented and then distilled, produce a potent liquor.
The wood of Jackfruit, which ages to an orange or red-brown color, is highly durable, resisting termites and decay. A yellow dye is sometimes extracted from the wood and used for dyeing clothes, especially in India and the Far East.
- The nutritious seeds are boiled or roasted and eaten like chestnuts, added to flour for baking, or added as ingredients to cooked dishes.
Ripe jackfruit is naturally sweet with subtle flavoring.
- It can be used to make a variety of dishes, including custards, cakes, or mixed with shaved ice as es teler in Indonesia or halo-halo in the Philippines.
In India, when the jackfruit is in season, an ice cream chain store called "Naturals" carries jackfruit flavored ice cream.
Ripe jackfruit arils are sometimes seeded, fried, or freeze-dried and sold as jackfruit chips.
The seeds from ripe fruits are edible, are said to have a milky, sweet taste, and may be boiled, baked, or roasted.
- When roasted, the flavor of the seeds is comparable to chestnuts.
Seeds are used as snacks either by boiling or fire roasting, or to make desserts.
For making the traditional breakfast dish in southern India: idlis, the fruit is used with rice as an ingredient and jackfruit leaves are used as a wrapping for steaming.
- Jackfruit dosas can be prepared by grinding jackfruit flesh along with the batter.
https://www.crfg.org/pubs/ff/jackfruit.html http://rfcarchives.org.au/Next/Fruits/Jakfruit/JackfruitCultiv2-84.htm http://eol.org/pages/596411/overview